Throat Ailments

Otolaryngology is a medical and surgical specialty that focuses on the study and treatment of diseases related to several areas such as the ear abnormalities that may occur in the hearing field, ear infections, impaired balance, tinnitus (ringing), alterations in the facial nerve. Alterations in the throat, which may include diseases of the larynx (structure that is responsible for voice production) aero-digestive tract diseases (such as reflux problems), disorders of the voice.

Below are some of the conditions which we specialize on:

Sporadic snoring not have consequences and can be considered normal. The abnormal is the permanent night snoring, mouth breathing and associated with difficulty breathing through the nose. In this case it is advisable to consult an ENT specialist because they can try to adenoid hypertrophy and / or tonsillar.

Those who breathe through their mouth often have permanent facial characteristics common to find and are called “adenoid faces”. The main features are:

  • Long face
  • Small upper lip that reveals the upper teeth “Palette” arched palate (palate is “sunk”)
  • Poor dental bad position and dental occlusion
  • Lower lip enlarged
  • Sinking cheekbones that resembles a big nose without being
  • Slouching attitude

In some cases tonsils surgery and adenoids usually have an operable age and in other cases they cannot be operated. In general, patients usually have between 2 and 10 years of age. But there are children who unpredictably qualify before or after.

Children with chronic and recurrent sinusitis tend to greatly improve or solve their problem after adenoid surgery. It happens that the adenoids obstructs the bottom of the nose and prevent proper drainage of normal mucus into the mouth. The stagnation of secretions produced by the infection, on the other hand usually swollen adenoids (adenoiditis) and this is a contributing factor.

Tonsils never grow again but the adenoids, exceptionally, can grow back if a small part of an adenoid remains in the body. This, if it happens, usually occurs before the first 2 years pass.

It is important that parents have asked all the questions before scheduling surgery. Children, when they perceive the tranquility of the parents, usually arrive calm the day of the surgery. You have to explain that they will reach an operating room and that they will stay asleep besides his dad and/or mother. Upon awakening they should know that they will feel discomfort in the throat, but they will be next to his parents.

The terms “suffocated” and “the words stuck in my throat” reflect the relationship between the throat and emotions. That feeling of blockage in the throat is due to muscle tension. When you have anxiety, depression or stress, a small muscle opening at the bottom of the throat (pharynx) begins to stiffen. This muscle can contract even inadvertently and in doing so, a signal to the brain is sent indicating the presence of something in the throat, even if it does not exist. This condition is so common that it has its own name (balloon syndrome) and, although unpleasant, usually resolves in a few days. Other causes of the feeling of “lump” in the throat are the side effects of certain medications, such as antihistamines or substances used against high blood pressure and depression; the recent cold or cough; hiatal hernia, obesity and acid indigestion (especially when eating excessively at night).


  • Drink plenty of fluids
  • Chewing gum or lozenges to stimulate the production of saliva, which improves throat irritation.
  • Avoid heartburn (rise of stomach acid into the esophagus to the throat).
  • Take antacids bedtime and do so on a full stomach.
  • Avoid chocolate, greasy foods, alcohol and overeating.

Medical care

If the sensation of obstruction in the throat will not go away in days, consult a doctor. This will perform tests to determine the cause and adjust medications to seek resolution of the problem.

Voice loss or hoarseness occurs when the vocal cords are swollen or inflamed and does not vibrate normally. Produce a sound that is not natural or perhaps fail to produce it at all. The voice is formed when the diaphragm (the muscle that is located above the stomach) forces the air out of the lungs through the vocal cords. The air pressure determines the opening and obstruction of the vocal cords and the controlled flow of air makes them vibrate, producing the sounds that make up the voice. Besides hoarseness, you may suffer pain when speaking and throat irritation. Sometimes the voice has a higher or lower than normal hue. The common causes of hoarseness or loss of voice (hoarseness) are infections (hoarseness often when you have a cold or flu), allergies, vocal fatigue (talk very loud long or yelling), smoking and esophageal reflux chronic. Reflux, or return of acidic stomach contents into the esophagus, sometimes spills over the pharynx.


  • Limit time talk and whispers. (Speak softly vocal subjected to so much effort to speak in a normal voice and strings).
  • Drink plenty of fluids to keep no caffeinated hot wet throat.
  • No “clarify” the throat Stop smoking and avoid secondhand smoke. This parched throat and irritates the vocal cords.
  • Do not drink alcoholic beverages, which also dries the throat and irritate the vocal cords.
  • Use a humidifier to moisten the air we breathe. (Recommended sticking to the manufacturer’s instructions to clean the humidifier and prevent accumulation of bacteria).

Medical care

If the hoarseness persists more than 2 weeks, you should seek medical attention. The doctor may prescribe medications used in infections or allergies. They must be used as prescribed. Hoarseness is rarely caused by cancer.

Fresh breath is important for humans, reason why manufacturers of mints and mouthwashes sell every year millions of dollars of their products. However, these products only give a temporary solution to bad breath. In fact, they are less effective than just rinsing your mouth with water, brushing and flossing. There are multiple causes of bad breath. First, the mouth itself can be the source. Degradation from food particles and other debris in and around your teeth can cause bad breath. Dryness of the mouth, as occurs during sleep, certain medications or smoking, allows the accumulation of dead cells on the tongue, gums and cheeks. These cells decompose and generate bad breath. Eating foods that contain strong aroma oils also cause bad breath. Onions and garlic are the best examples; but other vegetables and spices can also produce it.

Lung disease can be a reason to have bad breath. Chronic infections of the lungs produce smelly breath. It is usual in such conditions that expectorating mucus becomes abundant. Various diseases can cause a distinctive breath’s odor. People with diabetes often have a fruity breath. This scent is also common in sick children who have eaten little in previous days. Bad breath in such situations is corrected by treating the underlying disease.


In most people, bad breath can be improved with a few simple steps:

  • Brushing your teeth after every meal.
  • Brush your tongue to remove dead cells.
  • Flossing once a day to remove food particles between teeth.
  • Drink plenty of fluids (avoid coffee and soft drinks or alcoholic) to keep the mouth moist.
  • Avoid strong foods that produce bad breath. The toothbrush or using mouthwash can barely disguise partially aromas of garlic or onions from the lungs.
  • Change your toothbrush every 2 to 3 months.
  • Rinse your mouth after using inhaled medications.

What is a tonsils’ infection (acute tonsillitis)?

Symptoms of this infection are fever, body aches, chills, burning sensation of throat or pain when swallowing Tonsils have a red color with white exudate. Treatment is with antibiotics derived from penicillin injected or orally.

What is recurrent tonsillitis?

It is an indication to operate the tonsil s when symptoms of acute tonsillitis occurs 4-5 times a year, since

What is hypertrophy of the tonsils?

When the tonsils are hypertrophied (large) obstructing the passage of air from the nose and mouth to lungs, it manifests as loud snoring and apnea in sleep, this is an indication to operate the tonsils.

Do I have to operate the tonsils?

Generally, the decision to operate the tonsils is made in conjunction with the doctor. In this case, risks and benefits of operating versus non-operating and treating every infectious condition with drugs are evaluated. If infections are recurrent (more than 4 episodes per year) surgery is plausible. The same applies when there was a history of abscesses, however when one episode per year occurs, surgery is not advised.

What is the cause of recurrent tonsillitis?

Sometimes there is the group a hemolytic streptococcus germ as the cause and treating the problem makes it disappear quickly. Chronic mouth breathing can cause chronic tonsillitis as a predisposing factor. Tonsillar hypertrophy is another predisposing factor, but sometimes this happens in patients with small tonsils.

Is it useful to operate the tonsils?

Removing the tonsils definitely ends the problems caused by them but provides no remedy against sinusitis.

Does the throat swab can tell me if I have to operate the tonsils?

No, the swab is a diagnostic test that looks for a particular germ. Its absence or presence does not say anything about the benefit of surgery.

Can I have tonsillitis again after it operated?

No. In the absence of tonsils the tonsillitis cannot return. Also it must be remembered that one can regain episodes of sore throat. In this case it usually is viral pharyngitis and is occasionally associated with nasal mucus.

Can I lower the defenses after surgery?

No, on the contrary if the tonsils were a permanent source of infection, its removal prevents new infections.

How long can’t I work after tonsil surgery?

Overall standing for 5-6 days is advised.

Can my voice change after tonsil surgery?

If the tonsils are too big, therefore their removal brings some changes in the resonance of the voice. Its resonance switches to have more space in the pharynx by not touching the vocal cords sound, since the source is the same. Patients usually report that their voice becomes “thinner” or “less twangy”. The change is referred to as positive by most people.

Does the operation is performed under general or local anesthesia?

General anesthesia is currently chosen because of their greater security, peace of mind of the patient and better control bleeding and it is performed in an operating room

How long do I have to remain hospitalized after surgery?

Generally intervention and high are performed on the same day. 4 hours postoperative control is usually sufficient.

Does it hurt after surgery?

The post-surgery is not painful and is treated with common painkillers and controlled without difficulty.

Tonsil Surgery

Tonsil surgery is required when the same condition is repeated for a short period of time. Although there are fewer cases where it requires the removal of the tonsils, if tonsillitis is common, it becomes chronic and has many abscesses, the doctor may suggest the removal. Surgery tonsils is called tonsillectomy, and is a surgical procedure whereby the tonsils are removed because they did not properly fulfill their protective function and instead do cause many problems and complications that can come to be serious. The surgery is not complicated and hospitalization time is short, rarely presents complications and patient recovery is very fast with proper care.

It is also important that the physician determines that the patient does not suffer at that time some other disease that could complicate the procedure. Although tonsillectomy is a relatively simple surgery it should be performed by a physician, which in this case is the otolaryngologist and be carried out in a clinic or hospital that meets the established hygiene and safety and has the appropriate medical instruments for both surgery and to address a possible emergency, as there could be further bleeding. The recovery of the patient is very quick and relatively little upsetting, it’s painful especially when swallowing food.

How to know when complications are present?

In case of fever, bleeding, pain or intense swelling or difficulty breathing, you should go immediately to the doctor. Sometimes when children are young, at the moment of removing the tonsils, the adenoids, which is a gland located in the upper part of the pharynx and if enlarged to the point of infection or difficulty breathing, they can be properly are also be removed.

Adenoids sometimes grow too much and can cause a number of severe complications, for example, clogged Eustachian tubes in the ear, disrupting normal operation and promoting the development of ear infections. They can also make breathing difficult by blocking the passage of air from the nostrils to the rest of the airways, making it necessary to breathe through your mouth, it favors the development of sinusitis, obstructive sleep apnea and purulent nasal discharge. When producing tights, acute or chronic otitis, when they have grown so much that obstruct normal breathing or when chronic infections or sinusitis occur, in all these cases the adenoids are removed.

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